Monday, May 08, 2006

Intro Paragraph/ Thesis Statement

The Great Migration was a massive movement of African Americans from the South to the North from 1863 to 1960. The largest spike in this migration occurred from about 1910 to 1920. The Great Migration was caused by various factors pushing African Americans out of the South, and other factors pulling them to the North. Some examples of these “push factors” include general dissatisfaction with the conditions in the South, impact of the Boll-weevil on Southern crops, low wages, racism, the Black Press, and lynching. Examples of some “pull factors” include a labor shortage in the North, higher wages in the North, higher wages in the North, a better education system, and less political and social discrimination. The Great Migration led to many other important events, including various race riots, white flight, and the Harlem Renaissance.

Sunday, May 07, 2006

Palmer, Dewey H.. Moving North: Migration of Negroes During World War I

Most of the African Americans migrated to the 10 major industrial areas. These included Indianapolis, Detroit, Cleveland, Kansas City, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York. Boll Weevil destroyed Southern cotton, getting rid of the main cash crop in the South. Fred Moore said that the higher wages in the north: “would have been far less attractive if the colored man had not felt, and felt it for a long time and bitterly, that in the North and West he would not, as in his southern home, be reminded of his black skin every time he met a policeman, entered a street car, railway station or train, and in a hundred other less conspicuous ways in the course of a day.”

Marks, Carole. Black Workers and the Great Migration North

“Over one million, 10 percent of the black population, fled the South during the two decades, 1910 to 1930.” From 1910 to 1920 a total of 454 thousand blacks left the South. Most of the migrants came from rural areas. Most moved to the towns in both the North and the South in search of industrial employment. The black population in the south because 22 percent urbanized by 1910.

Lamon, Lester C., and W.T. Andrews. W.T. Andrews Explains The Causes of Black Migration From the South

W.T. Andrews was a lawyer and the editor of the Sumter Defender. He gave his address regarding the Great Migration on February the eighth of 1917. “In my chief causes of Negro unrest and disturbance of mind are as follows: The destruction of his political privileges and curtailment of his civil rights; no protection of life, liberty and property under the law; insufficient wages to the laboring class with which to buy the necessities of life; Jim Crow car, residential and labor segregation laws; no educational facilities worthy of the name for the education of Negro children in most of the Southern states. These, I believe, are the most potent causes which are now impelling the Southern Negro.”

Hawkins, Homer C. Trends in Black Migration from 1863-1960

Talks about The Great Migration from 1863-1960. I’ll focus on the migration beginning in 1915. It specially focuses on the push factors of the boll weevil and the black press. The destruction caused by the boll weevil made the already hard life of African Americans in the south harder, causing them to move north in large numbers. The main source of the black press was the Chicago Defender. It summarized the troubles and grivences of the blacks in the South so that they could be easily understood by readers. The Defender encouraged the Great Migration, discussing problems with the South that would cause one to leave and move northward. It did not, however, discuss the problems that were prevalent in the north with regard to African Americans. Between 1910 and 1915 the pull factors had an increased effect, especially employment, wages, and persuasion of friends and relatives.

Donald, Henderson H.. Causes of Recent Negro Migration

This source talks about the causes of the Great Migration. The main cause of the Great Migration was economic. One of the “pull factors” was the fact that there was a labor shortage in the north as a result of the war in Europe. More pull factors include “high wages, little or no employment, a shorter working day than on the farm, less political and social discrimination than in the South, better educational facilities, and the lure of the city.” Push factors include “general dissatisfaction with conditions, ravages of boll-weevil, floods, change of crop system, low wages, poor houses on plantations, inadequate school facilities, unsatisfactory crop settlements, rough treatment, cruelty of the law officers, unfairness in courts, lynching, the desire for travel, labor agents, the Negro Press, letters from friends in the North, and finally advice of white friends in the South, where crops had failed.”

Tuesday, March 21, 2006

Black Workers and the Great Migration North by Carole Marks

Who Left:
Blacks in rural areas left to take jobs in towns and cities of the north and south

Patterns of Migration Withinin the South:
They set in motion 3 migration streams:
-one advanced to the towns in search of industrial employment
-glutted the labor market and reduced already low wages of those already in jobs
-another migrated west to Texas and Oklahoma where wages were higher
-The other migrated to Alabama Georgia and Tennessee, to the newly opened iron and coal mines
--Movement may have been small, but it made the black population in the south 22 percent urbanized by 1910

Black Workers and the Great Migration North by Carole Marks

Over one million, 10 percent, of the black population fled the south from 1910 to 1930.
Push Pull Factors
-boll weevil
-Jim Crow

-needed labor for war in Europe
-black press

Period: Decrease of pop. in south (thousands)
1870-1880 -60
1880-1890 -70
1890-1900 -168
1900-1910 -170
1910-1920 -454
1920-1930 -749

Causes of Black Migration from the South

The document is called "WT Andrews Explains the Causes of Black Migration from the South."
Andrews says in his speech that the main reasons for blacks migrating north are as follows: loss of political privelages and civil rights, no protection under the law, poor wages for the working class, segregation, and the lack of a good education.

Monday, March 06, 2006

Causes and Effects of The Great Migration

For my research paper, I am going to write about the causes of The Great Migration and its effects on urban northern culture. I want to focus on the main cities, Chicago and Memphis. I also want to focus on the effects in the north as a result of the incredible infulx of African Americans with regards to culture, language, and literature.